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PND Flex PCB application

PND Flex PCB application
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PND Flex PCB application

  • PND Flex PCB application
    Our flex and rigid-flex circuit board solutions are custom designed for many top tier OEMs. Manufactured with dependable reliability, our flexible circuits are built to withstand the rigors of aerospace, medical, and military applications. As a high reliability replacement for wire and wire harness assemblies, flex circuits provide a significant cost savings with no reduction in performance.
    There are many benefits to Flexible Printed Circuits including:
    Assembly Error Reduction – With accurate designs and automated production, flex circuits eliminate human errors once involved in hand-built wire harnesses. With the exception of production-induced errors, circuits are ONLY routed to those points called for by the accurate design plan.
    Decreased Assembly Time and Costs – Flex circuits require less manual labor during assembly and reduce production errors. Flex circuits have an intrinsic ability to integrate form, fit and function. Flex circuits eliminate the high cost of routing, wrapping and soldering wires. Complete interconnection systems are installed or replaced, rather than individual hard PC boards. As a result, wiring errors are eliminated and hence manufacturing costs are reduced. Whether it is a low volume production with a complex circuit or high volume production with a simple circuit, assembly time and costs are decreased.
    Design Freedom – Unlike rigid boards, flex circuits are not restricted to two dimensions. Because they are as flexible as wires or ribbon cables, flex circuit design options are endless. At Flexible Circuit, we pride ourselves on taking on the most complex of design challenges. Flex circuits can be designed to meet highly complex and unimaginable configurations while being able to operate in the most hostile environments. Flex circuit designs could entail any of the following:
    Highly complex configurations
    Withstand hostile operating environments
    Single- Double- combinations
    Complex interconnections
    Rigid/flex capabilities
    Surface mounted devices
    Postnatal depression (PND) is surprisingly common, affecting at least one in eight new mums. Symptoms of PND can include feeling low, tired and anxious, and changes to eating and sleeping patterns. Treatment for PND usually involves antidepressants, counselling or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), or a combination of treatments.

    Read on for more information on PND, including self-help tips and how to get confidential help.
    What is postnatal depression?

    Postnatal depression (PND) is sometimes confused with the baby blues. The baby blues are when you feel moody, weepy, tired or anxious during the first week after giving birth. These feelings will usually pass within a few days.

    However, unlike the baby blues, PND is an illness that is unlikely to get better quickly, and without help. The sooner you recognise that you have PND, and get the support that you need, the less likely it is to become a severe or long-term problem.

    Wire harness conversion to flex reduces wiring errors from hand made connections and decreases assembly time
    Flexibility during Installation – Flexible Circuits allow a third dimension to work with because they can interconnect between two or more planes during execution. As a result, they solve space and weight problems unmatched by rigid boards. Flex circuits can be manipulated many times during installation and execution without electronic failure.
    High Density Applications – Flexible circuits allow for minutely narrow lines giving way to high density device population. Denser device populations and lighter conductors can be designed into a product, freeing space for additional product features.
    Improved Airflow – Because of their streamlined design, flex circuits allow for the flow of cooling air through an electronic application.

    As the name suggests, a flexible printed circuit is a pattern of conductors printed onto a flexible insulating film. Rigid-flex is the name given to a printed circuit that is a combination of both flexible circuit(s) and rigid circuit(s), as shown in the image above. This combination is ideal for exploiting the benefits of both flexible and rigid circuits - the rigid circuits can carry all or the bulk of the components, with the flexible sections acting as interconnections between the rigid sections.
    SLP (Slippage) slip occurs: piece of content R / C high and flow R / F is greater than the pressure is too easy to produce timely, and every pot temperature is too large and cause uneven flow substrate per pot Chan will lead to poor positioning piece slip responses: Chan piece R / C, R / F high vertical machine (or water Liquidation machine) can also alter the conditions on Chan laminated CYCLE such as reduced heating rate as amended, postponed the pressure, reduce stress, if a larger temperature difference between each pot can reduce tension lowering capacity to overcome the poor pay more attention to improving the positioning operation.
    The Chinese first professional exhibition of flexible circuit board
    Time: 4th~6th June, 2013
    Place: Shanghai New International Expo Center

    As everybody known, the major market of flexible pcbs is focus in smart phone and digital product with touch screen (laptop, PND, digital camera, electronic book, DV, GPS, LCD TV plasma TV, Multi-Media player and so on).
    In recently years, the sales value and use frequency of flexible circuits is continued climbing as the increased market demand of final electronic product. For example, a lot of laptop and tablet TV using LED backlight technology, however, flexible PCB is just the common connector between LED and main board. Thus Flexible market will also has a bright future suppose laptop and tablet TV develop very well.
    As the first global professional flexible boards exhibition, the meeting will require “international, professional” and invite the leading manufacturer of FPC industry which come from USA, Japan, Korea, France, United Kingdom, German, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Chinese mainland to discuss together about the Chinese chance of FPC industry’s development. The purpose is to help top management know more about the latest trend of flex circuits industry chain. Meanwhile it has also help the global mobile, laptop, Display and touch panel supplies, related equipment producer, electronic product manufacturer,
    Dry (Dried Laminate) board dry Analysis: Poor glass cloth coupling agent compatibility with resin resulting in poor wetting. Or piece over so that timely pressure hardening resin flow is bad if found to have low flow pcb board that will produce dry, this condition at the time of solder measured prone stratification. Solution: glass cloth surface finish problems, please materials manufacturers improved low traffic reduces varnish water of time or improve piece flow of time and, if not serious Dry Lamination may amend conditions such as increased temperature rate, the pressure on early, increasing pressure.

    Flexible circuit technology was initially developed for the space program to save space and weight. They are popular today as they not only save space and weight - making them ideal for portable devices such as mobile phones and tablets - they can also: reduce packaging complexity by substantially reducing the need for interconnect wiring; improve product reliability due to reduced interconnection hardware and improved assembly yields; and reduce cost, when considered as part of the overall product manufacture and assembly costs.
    Flexible circuits are normally divided into 2 usage classes: static flexible circuits, and dynamic flexible circuits. Static flexible circuits (also referred to as use A) are those that undergo minimal flexing, typically during assembly and service. Dynamic flexible circuits (also referred to as use B) are those that are designed for frequent flexing; such as a disk drive head, a printer head, or as part of the hinge in a laptop screen. This distinction is important as it affects both the material selection and the construction methodology. There is a number of layer stack-up configurations that can be fabricated as rigid-flex, each with their own electrical, physical and cost advantages.
    The Inabata Group provides innovative solutions and services for IT and electronics, chemicals, life industry, plastics, housing and eco materials businesses worldwide. For more than a century, Inabata’s specialized functions have satisfied a vast range of client requirements through business planning, marketing, manufacturing and logistics. Headquartered in Japan, the Inabata Group operates more than 60 sites in 18 countries.
    Korean based Viewnix distribute advanced parts for IT products (mobile phones, laptops, UMPC, PND, PMP) through B2B business alliances with leading companies.

    How is PND treated?

    With help, you will get better. Your GP or health visitor will want to support you, so that you can look after yourself and your baby well. Be reassured that having PND does not mean that you are a bad mother, or that you will have your baby taken away from you.

    If you have mild PND, your GP may suggest self-help strategies, and recommend a book that could help. If you have moderate to severe PND, you may be treated with:

    Talking therapies

    Though talking to your partner or a friend can help, they may find it difficult to understand what you are going through.

    Your GP may be able to refer you to a support group, counsellor or psychotherapist. She also may be able to arrange cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or interpersonal therapy (IPT). CBT can teach you coping strategies, while IPT explores whether problems in your relationships with others may be contributing to your depression.

    Unfortunately, waiting lists for these therapies tend to be long in many areas of the UK. Some charities can put you in touch with a trained volunteer who is used talking to mums with PND.

    If your PND is more severe, you may be referred to a mental health team, which is likely to include specialist nurses, as well as a psychologist or psychiatrist.


    Antidepressants balance the chemicals in your brain. They raise levels of the hormone serotonin to lift your mood, help you to sleep, and make you feel less irritable.

    Between five and seven in 10 women who take antidepressants find that their PND symptoms ease within a few weeks of starting treatment. The first few tablets will make no difference, but after about two weeks to four weeks of taking them, you should begin to feel better.

    Antidepressants don’t always work, and may cause side-effects. Though they are not addictive, very occasionally, a person can become dependent on them.

    Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are considered to be safe to take if you are breastfeeding. Nortriptyline or imipramine are the TCAs that are usually recommended. Other commonly prescribed antidepressants for PND are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including:
    fluoxetine (Prozac)
    sertraline (Lustral)
    paroxetine (Seroxat)

    Antidepressants may pass into your breastmilk, though in very small amounts. Paroxetine and sertraline are often recommended over fluoxetine for breastfeeding mums, as smaller amounts of these drugs pass into breastmilk. If your baby seems sleepy or irritable after you have taken antidepressants, talk to your GP.

    Many mums who take antidepressants breastfeed because it improves their confidence and strengthens their bond with their baby. Feeling close to your baby can help you to tackle PND.

    Talk to your doctor to get a clear understanding of the risks and benefits involved in taking antidepressants if you are breastfeeding.

    After having a baby, up to 80 per cent of women may develop the ‘baby blues’ between day three and day ten after the birth. This feeling passes in a day or two and is different from postnatal depression (PND). However, around one in seven to ten mothers develop PND.

    PND is a depression that comes on within 12 months of having a baby, usually during the first few weeks or months. It can start slowly or suddenly, and can range from very mild and transient, to severe and lingering. For most women, it passes quickly, but others will need professional help.

    PND is most common after a woman’s first pregnancy. Some women experience depression during their pregnancy (this is called antenatal depression).

    The symptoms of antenatal and postnatal depression depend on the severity of the depression, but may include low self-esteem, feelings of inadequacy and guilt, tearfulness, sleeping difficulties and panic attacks. Fathers can also develop depression before and after the birth of a child.

    Partners, family and friends can all have an important role in a woman’s recovery from PND. Having a baby and PND both place great stress on relationships. A woman with postnatal depression may withdraw from everyone, including her baby and partner. The support of family members, especially her partner, is crucial in helping her recover.

    Lloyd’s Register Quality Assurance (LRQA) audit and certify Cambridge Nanotherm’s QMS systems. They are the world’s leading provider of independent assessment services including certification, validation, verification and training across a broad spectrum of standards and schemes, with recognition from over 50 accreditation bodies.
    Spirit Circuits are a leading supplier of thermal printed circuit boards, and are the leading Value Added Reseller for Nanotherm products in the UK. They provide fully-processed circuit boards to custom designs, offering high quality and fast delivery – and of course, using the patented Nanotherm thermal substrates, the highest thermal performance in the industry.
    Designing a flex or rigid-flex circuit is very much an electromechanical process. Designing any PCB is a 3 dimensional design process, but for a flex or rigid-flex design the 3 dimensional requirements are much more important. Why, because the rigid-flex board may attach to multiple surfaces within the product enclosure, and this attachment will probably happen as part of the product assembly process. To ensure that all sections of the finished board fit in their folded location within the enclosure, it is strongly recommended that a mechanical mock up (also known as a paper doll cut out) is created. This process must be as accurate and realistic as possible with all possible mechanical and hardware elements included, and both the assembly-time phase and the finished assembly must be carefully analyzed.
    For a engaging discussion on the materials, technologies and processes used in rigid-flex design, as well as information about the challenges involved with the production of a rigid-flex board, check out Ben Jordan's blog on Rigid-Flex - Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5.
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    Shenzhen Liangjian Electronic Technology Co., Ltd.
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    Fathers can also develop PND

    A recent British study found that around three per cent of new fathers are prone to PND, particularly if their partner or wife is depressed. In families where one of the parents already has a child or children from a previous relationship, the rate of PND in fathers rises to around seven per cent.

    Other risk factors for PND in fathers include:
    Older age
    First-time parent
    Small circle of friends
    Limited social interaction and support
    Limited education
    Concurrent stressful life events
    Quality of the relationship with wife or partner.
    Self-help for fathers and postnatal depression

    As a new father, you need to look after your own physical and emotional wellbeing. Suggestions include:
    Make sure you have some time to yourself, apart from work and family.
    Try to keep up important hobbies and interests as much as possible.
    Talk to close friends about your feelings and concerns.
    Suggestions for family and friends

    Ways you can help a loved one who has PND include:
    Find out as much information as you can about PND.
    Be patient and understanding.
    Ask the couple how you can help.
    Offer to babysit.
    Offer to help around the house.
    Let the mother know you are there for her, even if she doesn’t feel like talking.
    Appreciate that the father may also be emotionally affected by the demands and challenges of new parenthood.

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    20 years professional OEM pcb assembly board manufacturer
    Shenzhen Hongtai Technology Co., Ltd.
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    Flex circuits are created from a stackup of flexible substrate material and copper, laminated together with adhesive, heat and pressure.
    The most common substrate is polyimide, a strong, yet flexible thermosetting polymer (thermoset). Examples of polyimides often used in the manufacture of flexible circuits include: Apical, Kapton, UPILEX, VTEC PI, Norton TH and Kaptrex. Note that these are registered trade names, owned by their respective trademark holders.
    The copper layer is typically rolled and annealed (RA) copper, or sometimes wrought copper. These forms of copper are produced as a foil and offer excellent flexibility. They have an elongated grain, it is important to orient this correctly in a dynamic flex circuit to achieve the maximum flexing lifespan. This is achieved by orienting the dynamic flex circuit along the roll (so the circuit bends in the same way the foil was coiled on the roll). The flex manufacturer normally deals with this during the preparation of fabrication panels, it only becomes an issue if the designer performs their own circuit panelization (referred to as nesting in flex circuit design). The copper foil is typically coated with a photo-sensitive layer, which is then exposed and etched to give the desired pattern of conductors and termination pads.
    Molex 0.25mm Pitch Easy-On™ Bottom-Contact FPC Connectors
    Molex designed the 503320 Series 0.25mm Pitch Easy-On™ Flexible Printed Circuits (FPC) Connectors with a higher housing area to provide greater space savings and flexibility for applications with tight space restraints. The higher housing area enables components such as small resistors, capacitors, and selected connectors to be placed under the FPC; resulting in increased PCB space, greater cable retention reliability, and better protection of FPC cable pads. Molex incorporated the design concepts of its earlier series FPC connectors in the 0.25mm Pitch Easy-On FPC Connectors including extended actuator construction, actuator-to-housing friction lock, front solder tab under the housing, a spring feature on odd and even contacts to retain electrical contact as terminals flex, 0.3mm pitch cable tolerance, and full zero insertion force (ZIF) construction to enable easier handling and cable insertion. The connectors are right angle, SMT, bottom contact mounting, and are available in a choice of 25, 37, or 41 contacts. These connectors are ideal for mobile phones, portable audio players, digital cameras, portable games, car navigation, personal navigators (PND), and any application requiring maximum PCB space savings.
    Product details
    3 Core 0.75mm Rubber-neoprene Pond Flex 3183P 25m
    • 0.75mm2 Rubber-neoprene flex
    • Suitable for use in wet or damp areas including ponds
    • For appliances up to 1200 Watts
    • BASEC Approved
    • Standard Brown, Blue and Green/Yellow colour coding
    • 25m Coil
    25m coil of 0.75mm2 Rubber-neoprene insulated 3-core flex. Suitable for use in wet or damp areas including ponds, for appliances up to 1200 Watts.
    Most materials systems used in PWBs (aka PCBs) are composites of resins, fabric substrates and metal cladding. Each of these components has its own unique electrical and mechanical properties that contribute to the final characteristics of the finished laminates, prepregs and fabricated multilayer boards (MLBs). In most cases variables such as glass style and resin content have offsetting impacts on physical vs. electrical properties.
    Data sheets often provide data in standard IPC formats, which may look at properties in rigid laminates (nominal 0.062” made using heavyweight glass at 32–40% resin content) rather than thin lams and prepregs used for multilayer PWBs (which more typically average 55% resin content or more). To further complicate the situation, some product lines are manufactured with consistent resin content for all product thicknesses, thus maintaining the dielectric properties while letting the mechanical properties be dictated by the constructions and resin content.
    An understanding of what such variations in properties mean and how they relate to what the users will actually encounter is essential to design, manufacturability, assembly and end-use viability. In this presentation we will look specifically at the effect of glass style and resin content on dielectric constant and CTE and discuss how even at the product design level it is important for design engineers to take these into consideration.

    In most cases, no single value of dielectric constant or in-plane CTE (representative laminate properties that are impacted by resin content variation—obviously there are others as well, but for purposes of keeping this work manageable, we will focus on these two) will hold for all thicknesses of laminate or build-ups for MLBs. In those cases where either or both are critical, it is necessary to control resin content in both laminate and prepreg to ensure that the finished properties fall within the desired and expected ranges.
    In some cases, such as with 85N polyimide and 92ML thermally conductive epoxy products, the specific values of Dk and CTE are less critical than other things such as processibility and design flexibility (as for 85N) or thermal conductivity (for 92ML) and so resin contents are allowed to vary so as to meet these needs.
    The adhesive is typically acrylic, and as the softest material in the structure, introduces the greatest number of manufacturing challenges. These include: squeeze-out, where the adhesive is squeezed out into openings cut into the cover layers to access copper layers; Z-axis expansion defects due to the higher CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) of acrylic adhesive; and moisture out gassing due to the higher rate of moisture absorbance, which can result in resin recession, blow outs and delamination at plated through hole sites. Alternative adhesives and adhesive-less processes are available, these may be more appropriate in less cost-sensitive applications.
    You may have had a mental illness before pregnancy. Your symptoms may get worse or return after your baby is born. Just as at other times, women can experience many types of mental health problems. If you are worried about any type of mental illness, discuss this with your GP. They can make sure you get the help and support you need.

    What causes PND?

    Many possible causes for PND have been suggested. There is probably no single reason, but a number of different stresses may add up to cause it.

    You are more likely to have PND if you:

    have had mental health problems, including depression before
    have had depression or anxiety during pregnancy
    do not have support from family or friends
    have had a recent stressful event - e.g. death of someone close to you, relationship ending, losing a job.
    There may be a physical cause for your depression, such as an underactive thyroid. This can be easily treated.

    PND can start for no obvious reason, without any of these causes. Also having these problems does not mean that you will definitely have PND.

    Can postnatal depression be prevented?

    We don't know enough about PND to prevent it in the first place. The following suggestions seem sensible and may help to keep you well.

    Don't try to be 'superwoman'. Try to do less and make sure that you don't get over-tired.
    Do make friends with other women who are pregnant or have just had a baby. It may be more difficult to make new friends if you get PND.
    Do find someone you can talk to. If you don't have a close friend you can turn to, try the National Childbirth Trust or The Pandas Foundation. Their local groups are very supportive both before and after childbirth.
    Do go to antenatal classes. If you have a partner, take them with you. If not take a friend or relative.
    Don't stop antidepressant medication during pregnancy without advice. Around 7 in 10 women who stop antidepressants in pregnancy relapse if they stop the medication. You need to discuss the risks and benefits of continuing treatment in pregnancy and breastfeeding.
    Do keep in touch with your GP and your health visitor if you have had depression before. Any signs of depression in pregnancy or PND can be recognised early.

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